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Writing & Citation Guide

This LibGuide connects you with resources to assist with citing your sources using MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian Style citation .

Chicago/Turabian Style

The Chicago Manual of Style, published by the University of Chicago, is designed for professionals who are writing works for publication, and contains much detailed instruction on formatting and many other things. "Turabian" style of citation, named for the original author Kate L. Turabian, is is a pared-down version of Chicago style, simplified for students writing research papers.

You can either do in-text citation by Author-Date or by Footnote/Endnote. Just be consistent. 

 

The purpose of citation is to:

  • Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper.
  • Indicate the authors or sources on a Bibliography (Chicago/Turabian) list at the end of your paper.

 

Important TipAlways refer back to your assignment. Your professor might have listed restrictions on resources and citations and it is important that you stay within the perimeters of your assignment!

 

Books
   General
Format

‚ÄčBasic Book Citation

          Author-Date In Text Citation: (Author, Year, page{s})

or

Basic Footnote In-Text Citation:

1. Author's first and last name, Title of the Book (Location: Publisher, Year), Page number.

Basic Bibliography Entry:

Author's last name, Author's first name. Title of the Book. Location: Publisher, Year. 


          Book with more than one author:

Author-Date In Text Citation: (Author and Author Last Name, Year, page{s})

or

Footnote In Text Citation:

1. Author's first and last name and Author's first and Last name, Title of the Book (Location: Publisher, Year), Page number.

Bibliography:

Author'Last name, Author's First Name and  Author's first and last nameTitle of the Book. Location: Publisher, Year. 

 

          Edited Book:

Author-Date In Text Citation: (Editor's Last Name, Year, pages{s})

or

Footnote In Text Citation:

Editor's first and last name and Editor's first and Last name, eds.Title of the Book (Location: Publisher, Year), Page number.

Bibliography:

Editor's Last name, Author's First Name and Editor's first and last name. Title of the Book. Location: Publisher, Year. 

 

         Ebook

Author-Date In Text Citation: (Author Last Name, Year, page[s]))

or

Footnote In Text Citation:

1. Author's First and Last name, Title of ebook (Location: Publisher, Year, URL (Date Accessed). 

Bibliography:

Author's Last Name and First Name. Title of ebook. Location: Publisher, Year. URL (Date Accessed). 

Pro-Tip: Two additional items are necessary for citing an electronic book: URL of the database or website (here, http://rave.ohiolink.edu/ebooks/ebc/9780195178180), and the date the book was accessed by you. Be sure the URL you use is a permanent, or persistent, link.

 

Basic Chapter or Essay in a Collection

Footnote:

Author First Last, "Title of Chapter or Essay," in Title of Book or Anthology, ed. Name of editor of book cited (Location:Publisher,Date), Page numbers of cited essay.

Bibliography:

Author Last, First. "Title of Chapter or Essay." In Title of Book or Anthology, edited by Name of editor of book cited, Page Numbers. Location: Publisher, Date.

 

Citations for professional or scholarly journals, newspapers, and popular magazines vary slightly in Chicago/Turabian style.

Scholarly Journals (PRINT)

Notes and bibliographic entries for a journal include the following: author’s name, article title, journal title and issue information. Issue information refers to volume, issue number, month, year, and page numbers. Notes include the author’s name as listed in the article. Bibliographic entries, however, invert the author’s name (lastname, firstname.) Both notes and bibliographies use quotation marks to set off the titles of articles within the journal.

General Format

Author-Date In-Text Citation: (Author's Last Name Year, Page Number (if needed))

     or

Footnote:

  1. Author, “Article Title,” Journal Title Vol. #, Issue # (preceded by no.) (date): page(s).

Bibliography:

       Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title Vol. #, Issue # (preceded by no.):(date): pages(s).

 

Electronic Journals 

General Format

Author-Date In Text Citation: (Author's Last Name Year, Page Number (if needed))

or 

Footnote In Text Citation:

 1.  Author, “Article Title, ” Journal Title Vol. #, Issue # (preceded by no.) (date): pages(s), Accessed date. URL.

Bibliography:

Last name, First Name. "Article Title.” Journal Title Vol. #, Issue # (preceded by no.) (date): page(s). Accessed (date). URL.

 

Popular magazines:  If an online edition of a newspaper is consulted, the URL should be added at the end of the citation.

General Format

Author-Date In Text Citation: (Author's Last Name Year, Page Number (if needed)) or, if electronic, (Author's Last Name Year)

or

Footnote In Text Citation:

                       1.  Author, “Title of Article,” Name of Magazine, (Date- Month Year), page(s).

Bibliography:

             Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Name of Magazine, date.

 

Newspapers:  If an online edition of a newspaper is consulted, the URL should be added at the end of the citation.

General Format

Author-Date In Text Citation: (Author's Last Name Year) 

or

Footnote:

               1.  Author, “Article Title,” Newspaper Title (Place of Publication), Date of article.    

Bibliography:

      Last name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Newspaper Title (City, State of Publication), date.

Websites

General Format

Website with Known Author

Author-Date In Text Citation: (Author's Last Name Year)

or

Footnotes:

1. First Name Last Name, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

Bibliography:

Last Name, First Name. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.


Web Page with Known Date but without Known Author

Author Date In-Text Citation: (Title of Webpage, Year)

or

Footnote:

  1. “Title of Webpage,” Website, last modified date (Month Day Year), URL.

Bibliography:

“Title of Webpage,” Website, last modified date (Month Day Year), URL.

 

Web Page with Unknown Publication Date and Author

Author-Date In Text Citation: (Title of Webpage, Date Accessed)

or

Footnote:      

    1. “Title of Webpage,” Website, accessed date (Month Day Year), URL.

Bibliography:

    “Title of Webpage,” Website, accessed date (Month Day Year), URL.

 

E-Books

General Format

Author-Date In Text Citation: (Last Name, Year, page{s}))

or

Footnotes:

   1.  First Name Last Name, Title of Book (Location: Publisher, date), URL.

Bibliography:

    Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Location: Publisher, date. URL. 

 

Online Periodicals (Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles)

            General Format      

Footnote:

1. First Name Last Name, “Title,” Journal Title Vol #, Edition # (date): page(s), doi#.


Bibliography:

Last Name, First Name. “Title,” Journal Title Vol #, Edition # (date): page(s), doi#.

 

Interviews

General Format

Footnotes:

   1. Name of Interviewee in discussion with the author, month year.
   2. Name of Interviewee, interview by Name of Interviewer, Month, Day, Year, interview, transcript.

 

Published or Broadcast Interviews

General Format

Footnotes:

  1. Carrie Rodriguez, interview by Cuz Frost, Acoustic Café, 88.3 WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

Bibliography:

  Rodriguez, Carrie. Acoustic Café. By Cuz Frost. 88.3WGWG FM, November 20, 2008.

 

Blog

General Format

Generally, blog entries and comments are cited only as notes. If you frequently cite a blog, however, then you may choose to include it in your bibliography. Note: if the word “blog” is included in the title of the blog, there is no need to repeat it in parentheses after that title.

   1. J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

   2. Susan Woodring, September 17, 2010 (2:31 a.m.), comment on J. Robert Lennon, “How Do You Revise?,” Ward Six (blog), September 16, 2010 (8:39 a.m.), http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2010/09/how-do-you-revise.html.

 

Personal Communications

General Format

Footnotes:

  1. Patricia Burns, e-mail message to author, December 15, 2008.

The Chicago style of writing utilizes the NB system.  In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote or through a paraphrase or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document. 

Footnotes/Endnotes

Whether you use footnotes or endnotes, a superscript1 number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

Footnotes are at the bottom of the page. Endnotes are at the end of the paper

The first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source--author’s full name, source title, and facts of publication.  If you use the same source again, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and page number(s).

 

Rules to FootNotes/Endnotes

  • The first line of a footnote/endnote is indented five spaces, or one tab space, and each subsequent line is flushwith the left-hand margin.
  • The name of the author is not reversed and is separated from the title of the author’s text by a comma rather than period. There is no punctuation between the title and the publishing information.
  • Footnote/endnote numbers are sequential throughout the paper.
  • Footnotes appear at the bottom of the page.
  • Endnotes appear on a page entitled Endnotes at the end of the paper before the Bibliography.
  • At the top of your bibliography page, center the word Bibliography, and then double-space to start your first entry.
  • Each entry is listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.
  • The first line of each entry is flush with the left-hand margin, and each subsequent line is indented 1/2 inch.
  • Use MS Word’s Ruler or Format Paragraph functions to set a hanging indent.
  • Different elements of an entry are separated by periods, followed by one space.
  • Single-space entries, but double-space between entries.
  • Subsequent Notes:

When references to the same work follow one another with no intervening references, even if several pages
separate them, ibid. may take the place of the author’s name, the title of the work, and as much of the succeeding
material as is identical, including the page number. If, however, the page number changes, the new number must
be included with ibid. The author’s name and the title are never used with ibid.


1. Max Plowman, An Introduction to the Study of Blake (London: Gollancz, 1982), 32.
2. Ibid.
3. Ibid., 68.
NOTE: Ibid. is neither underlined nor italicized.

Bibliographies

  • All entries in the bibliography will include the author (or editor, compiler, translator), title, and publication information, and are arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names.
  • The author’s name is inverted in the bibliography, that is, lastname, firstname.
  • Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. are placed in quotation marks.
  • The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.
  • In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.

This Example of a Chicago Style Paper can be found at Purdue Owl: Chicago Style

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