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Writing & Citation Guide

This LibGuide connects you with resources to assist with citing your sources using MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian Style citation .

APA Citation Examples

APA (American Psychological Association) Style is a citation style that was developed by social and behavioral scientists to standardize scientific writing. APA Style (6th Edition) is used for:

  • Term Papers
  • Research Reports
  • Empirical Studies
  • Literature Reviews
  • Theoretical Articles
  • Methodological Articles
  • Case Studies

 

The purpose of citation is to:

  • Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper.
  • Indicate the authors or sources of these in a References (APA) list at the end of your paper.

 

Important Tip: Always refer back to your assignment. Your professor might have listed restrictions on resources and citations and it is important that you stay within the perimeters of your assignment!

Book with One Author or Editor:

General Format 

      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname, Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Author Surname, Year, page number)
 
      References:
      Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of
            Publication: Publisher.
 
Books with Two Authors or Editors:
General Format 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year)
 
      In-Text Citation (Direct Quote):
      (Author Surname & Author Surname, Year, page number)
 
      References:
      Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial.
            Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publisher.
 
 
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book:
General Format 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], Year, page number)
 
      References (Quotation):
      Author Surname [of Chapter or Article], First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article
            or chapter title. In Editor First Initial. Second Initial. Surname (Ed.), Book title:
            Subtitle (pp. page range of article or chapter). Place of Publication: Publisher.
 
 
Books with No Author or Editor Listed:
General Format 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Book title [usually shortened], Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Book title [usually shortened], Year, page number)
 
      References:
      Book title: Subtitle. (Year). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Article with one Author:

General Format

      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname, Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Author Surname, Year, page number)
 
      References:
      Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title,Volume (issue), page range.  
               doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if available]. 
 

Article with Three to Five Authors:

General Format

In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 

      (Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year)
   
In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Author Surname, Author Surname, & Author Surname, Year, page number)
 
References:
       Second Initial., & Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title,   
                    Volume(issue), page range. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of journal home page [if 
                     available].  
 
Pro Tip:  Although the first in-text citation for a work with three to five authors/editors includes all of the names of the authors/editors, subsequent citations include only the first author's/editor's surname, followed by et al. and the year.
Basic Web Page:
General Format 
 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname, Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Author Surname, Year, page or paragraph number [if available])
 
      References:
      Personal or Corporate Author. (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put n.d.).
            Title of specific document. Retrieved from URL of specific document

 

Webpage without an author:
General Format

     In-Text Citation (Paraphrase):
     (Title of specific document, Year) 

       NOTE: If the title of a document is long, use a shortened version for the in-text citations.

     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Title of specific document, Year, page or paragraph number [if available])
 
      References: 
      Title of specific document. (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put n.d.).Title of website. Retrieved
  from URL of specific document
 
Government Web Page:
        General Format
      
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Government Author/Department/Agency, Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Government Author/Department/Agency, Year, page or paragraph number [if available])
 
      References:
      Government Name. Name of Government Agency. (Year). Title of document: Subtitle
            (Report No. xxx [if available]). Retrieved from URL of specific document
Motion Picture/Film/Video
General Format 
 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Producer Surname & Director Surname, Year)
 
      References:
      Producer Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Producer), & Director Surname, First
            Initial. Second Initial. (Director). (Year). Title of movie [Format e.g. Motion picture
            or DVD]. Country where movie was produced: Name of Studio.
 
 
YouTube Video
General Format 
 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)
 
      References:
      Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. OR Author screen name. (Year, Month Day
            {of video post}). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL of specific video.
 
Television Broadcast or Series
General Format 
 
     Television Series:
     Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of broadcast or copyright). Title of broadcast [Television  
broadcast or Television series]. In P. Producer (Producer). City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.
 
     Single Episode in Series:
     Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of episode [Television series episode].          
In P. Producer (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: Studio or distributor.
 
 
Music Recording:  
          General Format 
 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Author Surname, Year, side and band or track number)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
       (Author Surname, Year, side and band or track number)
 
      References:
      Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B.B. Artist if different from writer].
          On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label.
          (Date of recording if different from song copyright date)
    
 Tip! In text citations, include side and band or track numbers: "Goodbye my love" (Brown, 2008, track 8)   
 

Images and Figures

General Format 

      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Artist Surname, Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Artist Surname, Year)
 
      References:
      Artist Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of the artwork [Format].
            Retrieved from URL (address of web site)
 

      Reference (No Author)
      Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image was created).
            Retrieved from URL (address of web site)

      Reference  (No Author, No Title, No Date)
      Many images found on the Web fall under this category. Try to locate the missing information by clicking on the image.

      [Subject and type of work]. Retrieved from URL (address of web site)

Online Images found in databases and on the web:

Reference Online Image/Database:
Artist's last name, artist’s initials. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from {Name of database} database 

Reference Online Image/Web site;
Artist's last name, artist’s initials. (Year). Title of work [Online image]. Retrieved from URL

Subsequent pages:

Reference Page:

 

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